Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 16, N° 4. Octubre-diciembre 2022
Cómo citar:
Klochko, O., Pohoda, O., Rybalko, P., Kravchenko, A., Tytovych, A., & Kondratenko, V. (2022). Features of the implementation of
inclusive education: The role of the teacher. Revista Eduweb, 16(4), 131-140.
Features of the implementation of inclusive education:
The role of the teacher
Características de la implementación de la educación inclusiva: El papel del
Oksana Klochko
Sumy Regional Institute of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education, Sumy, Ukraine.
Olena Pohoda
Kharkiv I.P. Kotlyarevsky National University of Arts, Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Petro Rybalko
Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A.S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine.
Anatoly Kravchenko
Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A.S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine.
Andrii Tytovych
Sumy State Pedagogical University named after A.S. Makarenko, Sumy, Ukraine.
Viktoriia Kondratenko
The University of Customs and Finance, Dnipro, Ukraine.
Recibido: 02/11/22
Aceptado: 20/12/22
The article analyzes the peculiarities of the professional activity of a teacher in the
conditions of an inclusive educational space, in particular, the special training of a teacher
as an integral component of this process. Emphasis is placed on the cooperation of
teachers in an inclusive educational institution for the socialization of a child with special
needs and her preparation for independent life.
Eduweb, 2022, octubre-diciembre, v.16, n.4. ISSN: 1856-7576
Keywords: inclusion, children with special educational needs, inclusive educational
environment, socialization of children, benefits of an inclusive classroom for child
El artículo analiza las peculiaridades de la actividad profesional de un docente en las
condiciones de un espacio educativo inclusivo, en particular, la formación especial de un
docente como componente integral de este proceso. Se enfatiza la cooperación de los
docentes de una institución educativa inclusiva para la socialización de un niño con
necesidades especiales y su preparación para la vida independiente.
Palabras clave: inclusión, niños con necesidades educativas especiales, ambiente
educativo inclusivo, socialización de los niños, beneficios de un aula inclusiva para el
desarrollo infantil.
1. Introduction
All the changes that are taking place in our country, in one way or another, affect various
spheres of life and activity of our society. The priority of universal human values, human life
and health, free development of the individual is also reflected in the organization of the
educational process. Accordingly, attention has increased to the problem of humanization of
education and personalization of the learning process. That's why it is quite logical that
inclusive education is becoming one of the priority areas for the development of modern
education in the changing Ukraine. At present time we are witnessing the active
modernization of the system of higher professional education in Ukraine. One of the vectors
of modernization is the development of the theory, the material basis and practice of inclusive
education, the expansion and rooting of this inclusiveness in the activities of the country's
universities (Haegele & Zhu, 2017).
In the context of the formation of a social state in Ukraine and the democratization of social
relations, the idea of inclusive education is the most acceptable form of achieving equality in
the field of education. The term "inclusion" is into the space of Ukraine as a new code of social
equality. Inclusion is understood as the inclusion in the general educational process of all
students, regardless of their gender, ethnicity and religion, the state of their physical and
mental health, their level of development.
With the inclusion of the concept of "inclusive education" in a legal document, it becomes a
legal term, which determines the need for a thorough and complete study of the term itself
and the concept that it expresses.
Inclusion in education is equally necessary for all participants in educational interaction.
Inclusive education is a promising model of socialization in a society focused on achieving a
high level of social security for everyone. A special place in the implementation of such a
model is occupied by the teacher. It is on his emotional stability, readiness to accept children
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Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 16, N° 4. Octubre-diciembre 2022
with special educational needs that the development of inclusive education in the education
system depends (Roldán, Marauri, Aubert & Flecha, 2021).
Inclusive (inclusive) education is understood as a process of joint education and training of
people with disabilities and ordinary peers. In the course of such education, children with
disabilities can achieve the fullest progress in social and psychological development (Ahsan
& Sharma, 2018).
Differences in thinking, worldview, culture and traditions include the concept of "inclusion".
Based on the fact that the personality of any child is valuable in itself, you are convinced that
children with special educational needs, in order to enter society, first of all need an extra-
family environment, communication with other children, and they need an intermediary that
is different from their parents, i. e. teacher. Here we mean inclusive education. Inclusion
consists in the fact that any educational institutions, including kindergartens, must accept all
children without exception, regardless of their characteristics. This applies not only to
physically unhealthy children, but also to healthy ones, for example, from among indigenous
peoples or gifted children (Dila & Wijayanti, 2020). The education system should be based
on this principle: all children are different and each one is special in its own way, but they all
belong to a specific community. All children have the right to go to one school or another,
both gifted and disabled children. Each child must be looked at individually and his special
needs must be taken into account educational needs.
In any case, the benefits of inclusion far outweigh the disadvantages of this process, and the
best test of the correctness of inclusive approaches in education will be its results.
One of the tasks of inclusive education is to create a psychologically comfortable educational
environment in the process of pedagogical communication for children with disabilities.
Inclusive education requires not only specially created comfortable conditions for children
with disabilities, but also a special psychological readiness of the teacher. The
unpreparedness of teachers for inclusive practice is an acute problem already at the initial
stages of education: such psychological “barriers” appear as professional insecurity,
unwillingness to change anything, psychological unpreparedness to work with “special”
children (Jessup et al., 2018), (Sharavara & Batsman, 2020). A teacher teaching children with
special educational needs should be psychologically prepared to create special conditions for
such children within the existing educational system, to develop and implement correctional
and developmental technologies for teaching students in this group. The level of
professionalism and knowledge that will allow making optimal decisions in a particular
pedagogical situation is represented by three groups of special competencies: organizational
and managerial, educational and methodological. Each of the competencies includes a list of
professionally important qualities that have a significant impact on the effectiveness of
professional pedagogical activity. Psychological readiness is the result of professional
training, the quality of the individual, and so also acts as a regulator of the success of
professional activity (Muñoz-Martínez & Porter, 2018), (Francis et al., 2017). It can be
concluded that one of the basic psychological processes that affect the effectiveness of the
teacher, who is engaged in the inclusion of a child with special needs in the process of general
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education, becomes an emotional acceptance of such a child. And here we can observe the
presence of the so-called professional "barrier" - the teacher is not psychologically ready to
accept a child, in the success of whose education he is not sure. He does not know how to
test his knowledge and how to evaluate his individual achievements (Bondar & Zolotoverh,
2. Literature review
For a successful process of emotional acceptance by a teacher of children with disabilities,
teachers need to form empathy towards such a student. Empathy is expressed in the ability
to rise above oneself and the situation, look at oneself from the outside, evaluate one's
activities and behavior when working with children with disabilities (Miatto, 2020). In order to
be as psychologically prepared as possible for the implementation of inclusive education, it
is important for the teacher to master the skills of empathic listening, the purpose of which is
to create in students the feeling that his feelings and experiences are accepted, understood
and interesting to the teacher.
It depends on the pedagogical influence how much the child will be emotionally saturated,
how interesting and exciting life at school will be for him (Paulsrud & Nilholm, 2020).
Also, the basic component of psychological readiness for the implementation of the ideas of
inclusive education is the motivational sphere of the teacher, which determines the
purposeful, conscious nature of his actions and determines the potential of the individual. It
is the motivational component that is characterized by a personal-pedagogical orientation and
manifests itself in a motivational-value relation to the learning process, in which the subject-
subject relationship is realized (Dell'Anna, 2021).
Many studies of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of corrective pedagogy, including
Dell'Anna, Paulsrud, Nilholm, Miatto, Bondar, Zolotoverh, Francis, Muñoz-Martínez, Porter,
Jessup, Sharavara, Batsman, Dila, Ahsan, Haegele, and others.
To implement such relations in the development of inclusive education, the human factor
plays an important role, that is, a model is formed in the teaching staff “ideal teacher”, which
contains such characteristics of a teacher as: professional skills in teaching, communication
skills, stress resistance, diligence and effectiveness, etc.
3. Aims
The Aim of the article is to characterize and analyze the readiness of future primary school
teachers to work with students with special needs.
4. Materials and methods
Research methods: theoretical: study and analysis of pedagogical, psychological,
philosophical, sociological literature on the problem of research, legislative and regulatory
documents; systematization, classification, terminological analysis, pedagogical modeling,
retrospective analysis, generalization of existing pedagogical experience; empirical:
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pedagogical experiment; diagnostic methods (testing, conversation, observation,
questioning, self-assessment, self-analysis, mutual assessment), professional activity
motivation methodology, pedagogical interpretation of the research results.
5. Results
The study revealed the facts of a positive attitude of the teaching staff towards students with
disabilities, the degree of accessibility of the environment, the list of specialties that are
priority for the disabled, the optimal, from the point of view of teachers, form of student
education, as well as measures by which the university can guarantee the opportunity
obtaining higher professional education for persons with special educational needs.
The results of the survey showed that almost the entire teaching staff (82%) has a positive
attitude towards the prospect of possible education of students with disabilities at the
According to the teaching staff of the university, there are currently a number of factors that
limit the possibilities of studying at the university young people with special educational
Among such factors, the teachers considered: lack of personnel (70%), advanced training
courses (64%), poor provision of electronic equipment (53%), lack of master's degree
programs (61%), lack of mechanisms that contribute to the organization of inclusive education
and their program - methodological support (72%), poor provision of educational and
methodological literature (84%). In addition, respondents believe that students with
disabilities are psychologically unprepared for general education (72%), there are problems
in the employment of disabled graduates (82%).
It is important to note that in the context of the administrative strategy for introducing the
process of inclusion in education, a necessary aspect is to assess the degree of readiness of
an educational institution to implement an inclusive approach.
For the successful organization of inclusive education, it is necessary to create certain
conditions: the definition of goals and the development of curricula in accordance with abilities
and needs of disabled people, creation of special conditions for vocational training,
psychological, pedagogical and social rehabilitation support.
6. Discussion
Despite the voluminous list of teacher's professional qualities, one of the most important
professional qualities is his resistance to stress.
The factor of social adaptation to stressful situations is the developed socio-psychological
tolerance (tolerance) of the teacher's personality. intolerance in largely due to personality
stereotypes, negative attitudes of interpersonal evaluation.
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Formation of the teacher's readiness for inclusive pedagogical practice includes such
personal characteristics as: a conscious choice of options own professional behavior; ability
and readiness to choose adequate means and methods of self-development; organization of
pedagogical activity in the conditions of cooperation; the ability to freely navigate the system
of techniques and methods of pedagogical activity.
Some scholars identify criteria that make it possible to determine the teacher's readiness for
inclusive education.
The first criterion identified by researchers is motivational-value criterion, which manifests
itself in the desire to transform one's own experience, to construct professional activities, self-
education and cooperation.
The next (operational-activity) criterion includes the possession of methods for the
development of professional knowledge (internalization) and updating professional abilities
(exteriorization), as well as the improvement of activities (correction of exteriorization).
And the last (reflexively-evaluative) criterion is the ability to formulate the difficulties and
problems of professional life, interpret their causes, evaluate the results of the professional
and personal achievements of the teacher.
The criteria proposed by the authors are of great interest for our study, because they reflect
the entire structure of readiness, including its personal, value, knowledge, activity and
reflexive components.
The criteria for a teacher's readiness for inclusive pedagogical practice can be: awareness of
the need for innovation; confidence that the innovation accepted for implementation will give
a positive result; consistency of personal goals with innovative activities; readiness to
overcome failures; technological equipment; a positive assessment of their previous
experience in the field of inclusive activities; ability for professional reflection; armament with
the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities; flexibility of thinking and behavior depending on the
situation; a propensity for creativity and anticipation of the desired pedagogical result at the
stage of choosing an influence strategy (Kefallinou, Symeonidou & Meijer, 2020).
The professional readiness of a teacher for inclusive education is a fundamental condition for
the successful implementation of inclusive education.
The main criterion of readiness is the orientation of the teacher's consciousness in the
conscious performance of professional activities in the process of implementing versatile and
full-fledged learning in the process of inclusive education.
An analysis of the changed requirements for the professional competence of a modern
teacher made it possible to identify a number of existing contradictions:
at the socio-pedagogical level: between the social order for the introduction and
implementation of inclusive education in domestic pedagogical practice and the lack of
qualified teaching staff for the implementation of inclusion;
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at the scientific and theoretical level: between the demand for the training of teachers of
educational institutions for inclusion and insufficient scientific substantiation of the content
and technology of such training;
at the practical and methodological level: between the need to implement inclusive
practice and prepare teachers for this process and the lack of program and
methodological materials that ensure the development of professional competence of
teachers in the field of inclusion.
Based on the above, I would like to note that the development of inclusive education is a
complex and multifaceted process, all participants of which need help in organizing the
mechanism of interaction. Like any new undertaking, the introduction of an inclusive
education system is accompanied by certain difficulties (Rueda, Muñoz-Martínez & Porter,
2021). This is the training of personnel and the selection of employees who are ready to work
in the system of inclusive education, the main difficulty is to break the wary, sometimes even
negative attitude of all participants in this process towards joint learning.
The attitude towards inclusive education of participants in the educational process is
ambiguous. Parents of children with disabilities want to their children, regardless of psycho-
physiological characteristics, attended a regular general education school. Some teachers
are condescending or indifferent to the inclusion of children with disabilities in educational
process. Another group of teachers has a condescending and even positive attitude towards
this category of children (Muñoz-Martínez & Porter, 2018). At the same time, some teachers
experience difficulties in accepting an inclusive child, because do not possess sufficient
knowledge and methods of teaching children with disabilities, and have insufficient
experience in dealing with such children.
This is where the imperfect actions of the teacher come from, who is not motivated to work
with this child and who is not competent in giving the knowledge that the child needs here
and now, including his zone of proximal development (Szumski, Smogorzewska &
Karwowski, 2017). The professional training of teachers contains an insufficient amount of
hours in special psychology and defectology, which makes it difficult to work with children
with disabilities.
We considered the readiness of teachers for inclusive education through the assessment of
two main blocks: professional readiness and psychological readiness (Opie, Deppeler &
Southcott, 2017).
In the structure of professional readiness, the following were determined: possession of
pedagogical technologies, knowledge of the basics of correctional pedagogy and special
psychology, information readiness, variability and flexibility of pedagogical thinking, taking
into account individual differences in children, reflection of professional experience and
results, readiness for professional interaction. In structure psychological readiness:
motivational readiness, consisting of personal attitudes (the moral principles of the teacher
and doubts about inclusion).
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The professionalism of a teacher in an inclusive educational environment lies both in the
ability to perceive, hear and listen to the children themselves, and in the ability to interact with
colleagues, work in a team (Boza-Chua, Gabriel-Gonzales & Andrade-Arenas, 2021).
The monitoring showed that the majority of teachers are not ready to implement inclusive
education. This is due to the insufficient development of the legislative framework and the
system of social support measures; the need for qualified personnel (defectologists,
psychologists, social educators, educators, etc.) and the insufficient level of their professional
training; the absence of significant changes in the curricula of various specialties; lack of
necessary logistical support; the lack of a unified system for the early detection of deviations
in the development of children and early corrective pedagogical assistance; the presence of
a distorted stereotypical view of society towards persons with disabilities; the lack of
development of the mechanism of activity of psychological-medical-pedagogical
commissions when making a conclusion about the "lack of learning" of this category of
children, etc. (Miyauchi, 2020).
But we must not forget that for the professional development of most specialists, higher
education institutions can be called an important link, the purpose of whose scientific activity
is to develop methods and design an inclusive educational environment. Higher education
has significant potential for improving regional systems for providing assistance to children
with special educational needs (Drach, 2020).
In order to identify the main directions of development of the inclusive education system and
to provide support in its formation and development, a study was conducted at the university
among the teaching staff (Muñoz-Martínez, Vergara & Carrasco, 2021).
7. Conclusions
Inclusive education is on the rise. In order to develop the level of accessibility of vocational
education in Ukraine, new requirements for institutions of higher professional education have
been developed and are being put into effect. They provide for changes in the educational
environment of the university, which should become accessible to students with disabilities.
Models of education for persons with developmental disabilities being developed in Ukraine
actualize the value of foreign experience. Changes in the Ukrainian educational law regarding
the education of children with disabilities in the second decade of the XXI century. are built
not only on the study and analysis of foreign experience, those discussions that take place
on the education of children with disabilities and disabilities, but also on the basis of Ukrainian
experience. And to date, Ukraine has accumulated a certain positive experience in
introducing an inclusive educational paradigm in working with different age groups.
Foreign and domestic represents a new round in the evolutionary development of education.
Although the issue of the transition to inclusive education is still a topic of discussion between
its supporters and opponents, the modern world is witnessing great changes in the state
policy of countries regarding the education of persons with disabilities. On the scale of the
development of inclusive education in preschool organizations, schools, vocational education
institutions, the idea of continuous inclusive education is becoming more and more real.
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Today, it is becoming historically necessary to develop a conceptual vision of a model of
continuous inclusive education as a condition implementation of the idea of social equality of
people. The whole model, the totality of the presented characteristics of a teacher in an
inclusive educational environment clearly shows ways to solve the main task - the creation
by the teacher of an inclusive educational environment at different levels of education in order
to most fully include students with special educational needs in the team, the educational
process, in society.
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