Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 17, N° 2. Abril-junio 2023
Eduweb, 2023, abril-junio, v.17, n.2. ISSN: 1856-7576
Cómo citar:
Bilyk, V., Banak, R., Bardadym, O., Sokal, M., & Anichkina, O. (2023). Introduction of interactive teaching methods in modern
schools. Revista Eduweb, 17(2), 199-209.
Introduction of interactive teaching methods in modern
Introducción de métodos de enseñanza interactivos en las escuelas
Viktoriia Bilyk
Senior Lecturer, PhD in Pedagogy, Department of Technological and Professional Education and
Decorative Arts, Khmelnytskyi National University, Ukraine.
Roman Banak
Deputy director for Educational and Methodological Work of the Educational Complex "Dominanta",
Postgraduate Student, Department of Theory and Methods of Physics and Astronomy Teaching, National
Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Ukraine.
Oleh Bardadym
Postgraduate Student of the Primary Education Department, Head of Computer Laboratories, Educational-
Scientific Institute of Pedagogical Education, Social Work and Art, Bohdan Khmelnytsky National
University of Cherkasy, Ukraine.
Mariia Sokal
Candidate of Philological Sciences (PhD in Philology), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of
Slavic Linguistics, The State institution «South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University named after K.
D. Ushynsky», Ukraine.
Olena Anichkina
PhD (Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences) Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Chemistry
Zhytomyr State University named after Ivan Franko, Ukraine.
Recibido: 15/02/23
Aceptado: 31/03/23
Modern society puts forward new challenges for education, one of which is training people who are
able to express critical opinions, find a way of communication in a new territory, who effectively
establish new connections in a fast-moving reality. Intension, activity, independence, creativity, the
ability to adapt to rapid changes these personality traits are becoming the most important at the
current stage of developing literature, and their formation requires using new approaches to the
process of teaching literacy. Therefore, the purpose of the academic paper is to clarify the
Introduction of interactive teaching methods in modern schools. - Eduweb, 2023, abril-junio, v.17, n.2.
development of using innovative, non-standard, as well as critical thinking methods of teaching and
learning at modern schools. In the course of the research, the following methods were used and
applied, namely: analysis, synthesis, generalization, explanation and qualification of data. By the way,
such outstanding modern and foreign scientists as O. Pometun, L. Pyrozhenko, as well as V. Bespalko,
V. Monakhova paid particular attention to studying the issue of interactive learning methods and made
a significant contribution in this direction. They explain innovations in education as an opportunity for
interaction, being in the mode of conversation, dialogue, action. Moreover, their studies show that
interactive learning makes it possible to significantly increase the percentage of learning the material,
as it affects not only the student’s consciousness but also his feelings. The development of interactive
learning elements can be found in the scientific works of V. Sukhomlynskyi, the works of innovative
teachers of the 70-80s (V. Shatalov, E. Ilyin, S. Lysenkova, Sh. Amonashvili, etc.), the theory of
developmental learning.
Keywords: Еducation, the future generation, modern schools, the evolution of education, innovative
La sociedad moderna plantea nuevos desafíos para la educación, uno de los cuales es formar personas
que sean capaces de expresar opiniones críticas, encontrar una forma de comunicación en un nuevo
territorio, que establezcan efectivamente nuevas conexiones en una realidad que se mueve
rápidamente. La intensidad, la actividad, la independencia, la creatividad, la capacidad de adaptarse
a los cambios rápidos: estos rasgos de personalidad se están convirtiendo en los más importantes en
la etapa actual del desarrollo de la literatura, y su formación requiere el uso de nuevos enfoques para
el proceso de alfabetización. Por lo tanto, el propósito del artículo académico es aclarar el desarrollo
del uso de métodos de enseñanza y aprendizaje innovadores, no estándar y de pensamiento crítico
en las escuelas modernas. En el transcurso de la investigación se utilizaron y aplicaron los siguientes
métodos, a saber: análisis, síntesis, generalización, explicación y calificación de datos. Por cierto,
destacados científicos modernos y extranjeros como O. Pometun, L. Pyrozhenko, así como
V. Bespalko, V. Monakhova prestaron especial atención al estudio del tema de los métodos de
aprendizaje interactivo e hicieron una contribución significativa en esta dirección. Explican las
innovaciones en educación como una oportunidad para la interacción, estando en el modo de
conversación, diálogo, acción. Además, sus estudios muestran que el aprendizaje interactivo permite
aumentar significativamente el porcentaje de aprendizaje del material, ya que afecta no solo a la
conciencia del alumno sino también a sus sentimientos. El desarrollo de elementos de aprendizaje
interactivo se puede encontrar en los trabajos científicos de V. Sukhomlynskyi, los trabajos de
maestros innovadores de los años 70 y 80 (V. Shatalov, E. Ilyin, S. Lysenkova, Sh. Amonashvili, etc.),
la teoría del aprendizaje evolutivo.
Palabras clave: Educación, la generación futura, escuelas modernas, la evolución de la educación,
métodos innovadores.
1. Introduction
Modern society puts forward new challenges for education, one of which is training people who
are able to express critical opinions, find a way of communication in a new territory, who
effectively establish new connections in a fast-moving reality. Intension, activity, independence,
creativity, the ability to adapt to rapid changes these personality traits are becoming the most
Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 17, N° 2. Abril-junio 2023
Eduweb, 2023, abril-junio, v.17, n.2. ISSN: 1856-7576
important at the current stage of developing literature, and their formation requires using new
approaches to the process of teaching literacy.
In this regard, the issue of using innovative, non-standard, as well as developing critical thinking,
literacy styles is of particular importance.
Therefore, the Concept of the New Ukrainian School (Hrynevych, 2016) defines the importance
of using tutoring styles. In the tutoring process, styles are used that teach students to make their
own choices, connect what has been learned with practical life, and take into account the
individuality of the education seeker.
Ultra-modern seminaries widely implement interactive learning styles of elementary school
students in order to achieve significant effective results in the process of assimilating knowledge
and its practical use. Interactive styles in the primary school are considered a way of organizing
the students’ educational and cognitive workload, ensuring their assimilation of the learning
content and the achievement of literacy claims during the performance of certain tasks.
Using interactive styles and exercises in tasks and outside lessons helps students acquire new
knowledge, obtain vital skills and abilities in an intriguing and active educational manner,
contributing to the formation of important skills and abilities and developing an cross-cutting
character, defined in the State Standard of Primary Education (Pidgurska et al., 2023).
Interactive literacy is a special form of joint efforts aimed at creating comfortable literacy
conditions in which every student feels successful and intellectual. The educational process takes
place in the conditions of constant, active interaction of all students and the teacher.
Interactive literacy is a special form of joint effort aimed at creating comfortable literacy conditions
in which every student feels successful and intellectually engaged. The educational process takes
place in an environment of constant, active interaction between all students and the teacher.
The purpose of the academic paper is to reveal the meaning and features of using interactive
learning methods at the lessons in educational establishments, as well as to investigate, clarify
and justify the features of their application and effectiveness.
2. Literature review
Scientists and educators have noted that interactive learning styles and forms of literacy are most
effective when used in the educational process for acquiring knowledge, developing skills and
abilities and forming individual paces of the student’s personality Nuthall, 2012; Rohrer & Pashler,
2012; Wininger et al., 2019; El-Sabagh, 2021).
The pedagogical dictionary gives the following description: “Interactive literacy (from the Latin
Interaction - trade) - literacy based on the interaction of students with the educational territory,
the educational sphere, which serves as a sphere of access to knowledge” (Honcharenko, 1997).
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One of the abstract principles of establishing the New Ukrainian School is the transition from
“filling” the child with knowledge to competent education. Accomplishing this task is, to a great
extent, related to using similar styles that encourage comparison, bracketing, analysis,
visualization of the results of one’s conditioning, etc. Similar styles are interactive learning styles
of young students (Kostanjevec et al., 2018).
Interactive styles are styles of teaching literacy in the process of which the student and the
teacher are in the mode of discussion, and dialogue with each other (Shevchuk & Fenrich, 2005).
This is cooperation, collective teaching of literacy teacher-student, student-student (Guerra &
Guevara, 2017). At the same time, the teacher and the student are equal subjects of education.
Interactive commerce excludes the dominance of one side of the educational process over
another and one opinion over another (Pometun & Pyrozhenko, 2011). During such
communication, students learn to be popular, communicate with other people, think critically and
express well-founded opinions (Lau et al., 2020).
The purpose of interactive interaction includes (Kovalova et al., 2016):
1. Creation of conditions for involving all participants in learning the process.
2. Providing every education seeker with the opportunity to understand and reflect on what he
knows and thinks.
3. Creating an atmosphere of work, interaction, and cooperation.
4. Providing comfortable learning conditions that would give each participant a sense of success,
ability, intellectual security, and significance.
5. Productive learning, constant interaction with life, application of acquired knowledge in
practical and everyday activities (Use of interactive teaching methods).
Being in interactive commerce, the student and the teacher are equal, original subjects of the
educational process (İlçin et al, 2018). They consistently define the goal of loading, the object,
the subject, the means of loading, and the training tasks. During such a joint hunt, thoughts,
knowledge, and work styles change, as a result of which reflection and evaluation of the achieved
results take place (Shaw et al., 2015). Education seekers are aware of what they have achieved
in a certain position of knowledge, what they know, how they express their emotional attitude to
the object of literacy, how they maintain evaluative judgments, and how their particular
experience of creative efforts has been changed (Harackiewicz & Hulleman, 2010).
Interactive styles cannot be “art for art’s sake”. They should easily implement the purpose of the
task; they should simply lead to the expected outcomes. The true essence of interactivity
introduces an element of unpredictability. Therefore, the result is, on the one hand, the influence
of drugs on the part of the manager (trainer), and on the other hand, it is the result of a whole
complex of reactions that occur during the performance of the task. A study group is not just a
collection of individuals for whom the leader conducts classes thanks to these styles; the group
creates a new creative educational quality.
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3. Methodology
The study was based on classical methods of pedagogical science. To carry out the theoretical
analysis, a comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to identify the different
interactive teaching methods that have been introduced in modern schools. The search for
relevant articles was conducted using various academic databases such as Google Scholar,
JSTOR, and Scopus. The articles were identified using specific keywords such as "interactive
teaching methods," "modern schools," "technology in education," and "active learning." The
articles were screened based on their relevance to the research question and their quality, as
assessed by their impact factor, citation rate, and peer-review status.
For the practical observations, we conducted a case study of a modern school that had introduced
interactive teaching methods in its curriculum. The case study involved observation of classroom
activities and interviews with teachers and students. The school was selected based on its
reputation for being innovative in the use of technology in education. The observations were
carried out over a period of two weeks, during which time we observed the teaching and learning
activities in various classrooms and interviewed several teachers and students.
To ensure the rigor of the study, we used data triangulation to cross-validate the findings from
the different data sources. The data sources included observations, interviews, and
documentation such as lesson plans and student work samples. The triangulation involved
comparing and contrasting the findings from the different sources to identify any discrepancies
or inconsistencies. We used this method to increase the credibility and reliability of the study's
4. Results
Interactive styles of teaching literacy are interesting and productive for children. They develop
creative abilities of schoolchildren, their cognitive interests. Using interactive tutoring styles in
tasks, an opportunity arises to get rid of the complications of students with a low level of academic
achievement. Educational material can intrigue schoolchildren and thereby give them the joy of
their own success. While applying such tasks, children persistently argue, communicate, and try
to prove their point of view. Schoolchildren learn to work in a group, and also develop their
communication skills.
The integration of studying at NUS with the help of interactive styles involves modeling life
situations, using joint games, working out a common problem based on the analysis of
circumstances and the relevant situation, etc. Interactive styles of teaching literacy are generally
divided into two groups group-based and advanced. These styles are used in different tasks,
stages of a particular task, with different claims and are the most widely used in a particular
Group styles include: “Working in dyads”, “Working in threes”, “Alternating threes”, “Carousel”,
“Working in small groups”, “Aquarium”.
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The essence of the interactive system “Working in dyads”, which is actively used at NUS, is that
schoolchildren work in pairs, completing tasks. Working with brackets requires the exchange of
ideas and allows you to quickly perform exercises that are time-consuming or nonsolvable under
normal conditions (promoting an event, essay, information in general, repeating tasks, events,
etc., polling each other, polling a friend). After that, one of the friends reports the results to the
The system “Working in threes” is a complex work in dyads. Conducting a discussion, exchanging
opinions, summarizing or, on the negative side, distinguishing different opinions in threes is
“Carousel” is one of the infamous interactive styles used in color assignments in elementary
school. Students sit in two circles inner and outer. The inner circle is immovable, and the outer
circle moves. There are two options for using the system: for discussion (there are “paired
arguments” with each other, and each member of the inner circle has his own, unique
justification), or for information exchange (students from the outer circle collect data while
The interactive system “Working in small groups” involves the allocation of seats. A “speaker”,
the leader of the group, follows the rules during the discussion, reads the task, determines the
speaker, and encourages the group to work; a “clerk” keeps records of the work results, helps in
summarizing the results and their presentation; the “mediator” watches the time, prompts the
group to work; the “speaker” easily expresses the opinion of the group, reports on the results of
the group’s work.
There is an opportunity to choose an expert group from stronger students. They work alone, and
when the results are released, they review and condense the information.
In addition to the interactive styles listed below, the system “Aquarium” is prominent in interactive
literacy and commerce. In this system, one micro group works independently in the center of the
class, and presents the result after discussion; the rest of the groups listen without being watched.
After that, the groups of the visiting circle assess the group’s performances and their own
The most famous styles of teaching primary literacy are as follows: “Big Circle”, “Microphone”,
“Rules without boundaries”, “Brainstorming”, “Mosaic”.
“Big Circle” and “Microphone” are relatively similar styles of interactive literacy. The essence of
the “Big Circle” system is that students sit in a circle and take turns speaking on a particular issue.
The discussion continues as long as there are people willing to speak. The teacher can take the
floor after the discussion.
And the “Microphone” system is, in fact, a kind of big circle. Students quickly take turns talking
about the problem, passing an imaginary “microphone” to each other.
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A good comprehensive interpretation of a big circle is the “Rules without boundaries” system. The
learner’s response is the persistence of a raw judgment, similar to “one can draw the following
conclusion”, “I figured that out”.
“Brainstorming” is a well-known interactive system, the essence of which is that all students take
turns expressing absolutely all, even erroneous, opinions about a problem raised. Expressed
opinions are neither discussed and nor condemned until the end of the conversation.
“Mosaic” is a system that combines both group and advanced work. Small groups perform colorful
tasks; then they are reformed so that each newly created group has experts on every aspect of
the problem discussed (for instance, each primary group anatomized one poem by
T. Shevchenko; after reforming the groups, the first new group should embody the motifs of all
the studied runes, the alternative ideological load, the third images, the fourth form).
Previously accumulated experience in Ukraine and abroad convincingly proves that interactive
styles contribute to intensifying and optimizing the educational process. They provide the students
with the opportunity:
to lubricate the process of assimilation of knowledge;
to analyze educational information, find imaginative ways to assimilation of educational
to learn to formulate one’s own opinion, express it correctly, justify one’s point of view, argue
but not fight;
to pretend different social situations and to enrich one’s own social experience through
additions to different life situations;
to listen to another person, to admire an essential opinion, to strive for dialogue;
to teach to form connections in a group, to determine one’s place in it, to avoid conflicts, to
be decisive, to strive for negotiations;
to find a common result of problems, to develop the skills of designing, independent work,
and performing a creative workshop.
The following principles of interactive literacy are distinguished:
Principle of loading to achieve the set claims, each student should persistently participate in the
communication process and persistently interact with others.
The principle of open feedback giving group members an opportunity to express their thoughts,
ideas or calls for tasks set. Group members learn how other people perceive their manner of
communication, acceptable style, and behavioral characteristics thanks to the constant use of
The principle of experimentation involves ensuring students’ active search for new ideas and
ways of solving the tasks. This principle is very important both as an example of a behavior
strategy in real life and as an impetus for the development of creativity and individual initiative.
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The principle of trust in communication it is precisely that the particular association of group
space during tasks aims at the common fashion of placing student and teacher in a circle facing
each other to change the established positions of scholars and ideas about how classes should
be conducted and organized.
The principle of equivalence of positions this means that the teacher does not seek to dump
learning on students, but acts together with them and on an equal footing. In turn, each student
has the opportunity to act as an organizer and a leader.
Practicing skills includes the following stages:
explanation of the action algorithm to the participants;
demonstrating an example of how to perform these actions;
working out the sequence of actions in pairs (small groups);
demonstration of the work of one or two pairs/groups (optional);
support, confirmation of participants’ successes;
consolidation of experience through homework, during other classes.
A trainer or trained persons can conduct the demonstration of skill; sometimes it can be replaced
by a video demonstration.
Once the skills are improved and visually demonstrated, the other participants should be given
the opportunity to alternately apply the particular skill. This can be done in twos, threes or small
groups so that each student has time to practice.
After doing the exercise, the coach offers the actors to kindly and encouragingly note the
advantages and disadvantages that they noticed while practicing the skill. He also participates in
the discussion; as a rule, he completes it, supplements and summarizes the conclusions of the
In order to consolidate the skill, one can give a task to apply the skill during the next week in
different situations and analyze one’s behavior and its results.
The whole class can hold conversations. Moreover, they are much more effective in groups,
especially if the class is large and time is limited.
Group discussion maximizes the efforts and contributions of each party. Discussion helps students
clarify their ideas, and comprehend passions and positions. Discussion in groups makes it possible
to learn more about each other. It stimulates the free exchange of ideas, and increases the
responsibility for students to understand better and pay attention to the passions and positions
of others. Working in groups develops the skills of active listening, empathy, cooperation,
confident gesture and endurance.
The method “Peer-to-peer” is peer-to-peer teaching (for instance, teenagers teach their peers).
This approach is most effective in the youth environment. After all, teenagers have great authority
among their peers. Similar instructors have similar life skills, and common interests, and
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approximately the same age. Thus, they are often more respected and their opinions are taken
into consideration.
The cycle of equal training has three stages:
The first stage is the selection and training of instructors.
The second stage includes training by trained instructors in their target groups.
The third stage includes monitoring of instructors’ activity and additional selection of new
Volunteer teachers conduct classes in interactive styles, in particular, use games with participation
and analysis of life situations.
For instance, the teacher of the basics of health can involve specially trained scientists from
among scientists of universities or scientists of pedagogical universities to conduct particular
classes. Assemblies from among the students of the class can also help the teacher conduct visual
demonstrations, organize joint games, write down proposals during brainstorming, carry out tests
and count the opinions of scientists, etc. (Blyth, 2018).
In order to effectively help the teacher, other teachers must undergo trainings. These trainings
will allow them to learn to hear accurately, understand the passions of other personalities,
encourage and support them to express their opinion, participate in conversations. When
involving peer instructors, the teacher should make sure they are properly inclined, defining their
role and tasks in the task, show how they coped with them after completing it.
5. Discussion
Scientists and educators have noted that interactive learning styles and forms of literacy are most
effective when used in the educational process for acquiring knowledge, developing skills and
abilities and forming individual paces of the student’s personality.
While applying interactive technologies, students can:
analyze educational information, creatively approach the study of educational material and,
thus, make the assimilation of knowledge more accessible;
learn to formulate one’s own opinion, express it correctly, prove one’s position, argue and
learn to listen to another person, respect an alternative opinion;
simulate various situations, enrich one’s own social experience through inclusion in various
life situations;
learn to build constructive relationships in a group, avoid conflicts, resolve them, seek
compromises, strive for dialogue and consensus;
improve and develop the skills of project activity, independent work, fulfillment of creative
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The studies conducted by the National Learning Center (Maryland, the USA) in the 1980s show
that interactive literacy can dramatically increase the chance of mastering the material, forasmuch
as it affects not only the student’s knowledge, but also his desire and will.
The results of these studies are reflected in the figure entitled “Educational unit”:
Visual and auditory perception-20%
Group Discussion-50%
Practical exercises-75%
Teaching others (practical) -90%
The summary scheme shows that the lowest results can be achieved under conditions of unstable
literacy (lecture - 5, reading - 10, visual and auditory perception - 20, demonstration - 30), and
the highest - under conditions of interactive literacy (group discussion - 50, practical classes - 75,
teaching others or direct knowledge operation - 90). These are average stationary data.
Therefore, the results may differ in individual cases, but on average every teacher can trace this
6. Conclusions
The analysis of cutting-edge pedagogical literature led to similar conclusions that the special value
of interactive learning styles lies in the fact that students learn effective cooperation and
optimization of the educational process.
On the other hand, interactive styles of literacy are part of orientational literacy, since they
contribute to the socialization of the being, awareness of a person as part of a group, one’s part
and opportunities. The teacher acts only as an educator and annotator of students’ results in the
process of interactive literacy training. Students perform the main work alone, relying on their
own experience of trading in groups, as well as on the ability to express their own opinion and
analyze the classmates’ viewpoints.
In addition, using interactive styles allows for achieving such an atmosphere in the classroom that
stylishly promotes cooperation, understanding and friendliness, as well as competent
communication. Subsequent investigations are planned to be conducted in the direction of further
thorough study of the issue of “functioning of interactive learning styles in practice”.
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