210
The innovative structure of physical education lessons for students in romanian educational
institutions (late XIX - early XXI Century). - Eduweb, 2023, abril-junio, v.17, n.2. /210-224
Oleksandra Tsybanyuk, Nataliia Hnes, Inna Strazhnikova, Serhii Dariichuk
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46502/issn.1856-7576/2023.17.02.18
Cómo citar:
Tsybanyuk, O., Hnes, N., Strazhnikova, I., & Dariichuk, S. (2023). The innovative structure of physical education lessons for
students in romanian educational institutions (late XIX - early XXI Century). Revista Eduweb, 17(2), 210-224.
https://doi.org/10.46502/issn.1856-7576/2023.17.02.18
The innovative structure of physical education lessons for
students in romanian educational institutions
(late XIX - early XXI Century)
La estructura innovadora de las lecciones de educación física
para estudiantes en instituciones educativas rumanas
(finales del siglo XIX - principios del siglo XXI)
Oleksandra Tsybanyuk
o.tsibanyuk@chnu.edu.ua
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5367-5747
PhD (pedagogics), Associate Professor, Department of Theory and Methodology of Physical Education
and Sport, Yuriy Fedkovych Chernsvtsi National University, Ukraine.
Nataliia Hnes
n.gnes@chnu.edu.ua
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8080-7909
PhD (pedagogics), Associate Professor, Department of Theory and Methodology of Physical Education
and Sport, Yuriy Fedkovych Chernsvtsi National University, Ukraine.
Inna Strazhnikova
zavina@email.ua
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5921-6197
Professor of Pedagogy, B. Stuparyk Department of Pedagogy and Educational Managment, Vasyl Stefanyk
Prycarpation National University, Ukraine.
Serhii Dariichuk
s.dariichuk@chnu.cv.ua
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8089-1293
PhD (pedagogics), Associate Professor, Department of Physical Culture and Basics of Health Studies,
Yuriy Fedkovych Chernsvtsi National University, Ukraine.
Recibido: 15/02/23
Aceptado: 31/03/23
Abstract
The research aims to establish the regularity of promoting the implementation of the innovative
structure of PE lessons for students in Romanian educational institutions (late XIX - early XXI century).
As a result of the study, it was found that students of educational institutions noted that coordination
exercises (98.3%), game and competitive exercises (95.5%), breathing exercises (94.1%), rhythmic
exercises (93.8%), exercises in various and imitation walking (92.4%), etc. have a positive impact on
the development of physical culture in students. It was found that teachers most often use the
following game exercises in the innovative structure of physical education lessons: "One and Two"
(95.6%), "Do this, ¡do that!" (95.5%), "Crabs and Shrimps" (89.7%), "Train" (89.6%), "Chapel Hijack"
(89.2%), "Boat" (89%), etc. It has been found that teachers use cooperative group learning (89.7%),
Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 17, N° 2. Abril-junio 2023
Eduweb, 2023, abril-junio, v.17, n.2. ISSN: 1856-7576
interactive methodological and organizational complex (89.2%), and multimedia technologies (89%)
in PE lessons.
Keywords: innovative lesson structure, physical education, students, educational institutions,
Romania.
Resumen
La investigación tiene como objetivo establecer la regularidad de la promoción de la implementación
de la estructura innovadora de lecciones de educación física para estudiantes en instituciones
educativas rumanas (finales del siglo XIX - principios del siglo XXI). Como resultado del estudio se
encontró que los estudiantes de instituciones educativas señalaron que los ejercicios de coordinación
(98,3%), ejercicios de juego y competitivos (95,5%), ejercicios de respiración (94,1%), ejercicios
rítmicos (93,8%), ejercicios en varios y la imitación de caminar (92,4%), etc. tienen un impacto
positivo en el desarrollo de la cultura física en los estudiantes. Se encontró que los profesores utilizan
con mayor frecuencia los siguientes ejercicios de juego en la estructura innovadora de las lecciones
de educación física: "Uno y dos" (95,6%), "Haz esto, ¡haz aquello!" (95,5%), "Cangrejos y Camarones"
(89,7%), "Tren" (89,6%), "Chapel Hijack" (89,2%), "Barco" (89%), etc. aprendizaje en grupo
(89,7%), complejo metodológico y organizativo interactivo (89,2%) y tecnologías multimedia (89%)
en las clases de EF.
Palabras clave: estructura de lecciones innovadoras, educación física, estudiantes, instituciones
educativas, Rumania.
1. Introduction
Any educational system is constantly dealing with the education and training of the younger
generation. This phenomenon of education lies in anticipating the evolution of society as a whole
and in determining the future needs of students to ensure that students adapt to differentiated
variables such as the environment, technology, or legal conditions (Rus et al., 2019 Sîrghi &
Sîrghi, 2020).
Physical education of students has a long tradition in the educational system of Romanian
educational institutions. The first features related to the teaching of physical education in
Romanian educational institutions dating back to 1776. In the first half of the nineteenth century,
physical education was not one of the leading disciplines in the educational system. In 1832, two
physical education teachers worked in the educational institutions in the Principality of Wallachia.
The official introduction of physical education as an academic discipline in Romanian educational
institutions was accepted by the Law on Education of 1864, where Article 113 stated that physical
education and vocal music were compulsory educational disciplines in Romanian educational
institutions (Hanţiu & Stănescu, 2011).
The period of the late 19th century - the first third of the 20th century in Romania is marked by
the intensive development of physical education and sports among all segments of the population,
especially children and youth. During this time, Romania saw the intensive development of public
organizations in the relevant sports - clubs, federations, as well as "professional emigration".
Coaches and instructors in gymnastics, fencing, athletics, and other sports came to Romania.
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Oleksandra Tsybanyuk, Nataliia Hnes, Inna Strazhnikova, Serhii Dariichuk
The innovative structure of physical education lessons for students in romanian educational
institutions (late XIX - early XXI Century). - Eduweb, 2023, abril-junio, v.17, n.2. /210-224
There was the implementation and introduction of legal acts in the period from the end of the
19th to the beginning of the 21st century. These acts regulated the formation of the system of
physical education for students, and the government made the first attempts to organize training
for teaching physical education (Tsybanyuk, 2020).
As a result of the implementation of new legal acts aimed at regulating the education system
(European Commission, 2011), new curricula have been developed for most school subjects,
including physical education. The development of the curriculum for a given school subject is
determined by the realities faced by the educational process, the legal system, the social order,
the learning needs, and the cultural and geographical context in which the process takes place
(Radu et al., 2015; Talaghir & Icomonescu, 2017). The desire to adapt and update the physical
education curriculum for secondary education is part of a broader process of modernizing
Romanian education in this direction. Therefore, scientists are trying to achieve a common vision
of the importance of teaching PE to students in Romanian educational institutions (Rus et al.,
2019).
The research aims to establish the regularity of promoting the introduction of an innovative
structure of physical education lessons for students in Romanian educational institutions (late XIX
- early XXI century). A survey will be conducted on the Internet to determine the ability of
educational institutions to effectively use innovative methods of PE for students.
Research objectives of the article:
1. To survey students to establish certain features of the innovative structure of physical
education lessons for students in Romanian educational institutions (late XIX - early XXI
centuries).
2. To determine the dynamics of the evolution of the structure of physical education lessons
in Romanian educational institutions (the 90s of the XX - XXI century).
3. To differentiate the parts of the physical education lesson of Romanian schoolchildren.
4. To analyze the methods, means, and techniques used to study the innovative structure of
physical education lessons for students in Romanian educational institutions.
5. To analyze the structure of physical education lessons in Romania.
2. Literature Review
Recent studies show that in the works of Romanian scholars, which have been united in the
historiography of scientific research, the peculiarities of PE of the population of the Romanian
lands of different historical times have been analyzed - the recognition of PE as the basis for the
formation of intellectual, conscious, patriotic united youth, the role of physical exercises in
maintaining health, strengthening performance and harmonious development of the body, the
emergence and introduction of school physical education and sports, development of professional
Romanian terminology, actualization of folk bodywork traditions, physical activity needs of girls
and the genesis of the system of training qualified specialists (Grosu, 2013, Іonescu, 1972;
Іonescu, 1982).
Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 17, N° 2. Abril-junio 2023
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Over the past 50 years, physical education has undergone a differentiated shift from a traditional
focus on sports skills to a broader emphasis on health and fitness and lifelong physical activity
(Bocarro et al., 2008; Jago et al., 2009; McKenzie & Kahan, 2008). The reason is that all over the
world, all PE programs are being reduced or minimized and/or eliminated from primary and
secondary school curricula (Hardman & Marshall, 2009; Puhse & Gerber, 2005).
Health, leisure, and physical education professionals around the world play an important role in
developing strategies to address the significant increase in the number of obese children and
youth. Due to modern conditions, there is a need to use the latest forms of pedagogy. In addition,
more effective integration of health and physical education programs for students is needed.
Attention should also be paid to supporting the development of a healthy, active lifestyle
throughout life. It is necessary to explore ways to use innovative technologies in teaching physical
education in educational institutions, as well as to review the way teachers are trained in PE
(Edginton et al., 2011a; Edginton et al., 2011b; Cărstea, 1999; Chiriţă, 1972; Dragnea, 2000;
Mitra, 1974; Prodea & Văidăhăzan, 2010).
According to the WHO, the state of health of an individual is a representation of a person's good
physical, mental, and social condition. As health is considered the main goal in all national,
regional, and local strategies, it has an impact on the social, demographic, and individual levels.
At the national level, the Romanian Ministry of Health implements programs aimed at preventing
overweight and obesity by promoting a healthy and balanced active lifestyle. An example of the
desire to implement the WHO recommendations in this regard is the organization of pan-European
events, such as the European Anti-Obesity Day. The Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of
Romania is the body that regulates the number of educational hours for physical education
curricula and participates in the development of strategic projects through structural funds aimed
at promoting a healthy lifestyle through special educational programs (World Health Organization,
2010). The law regulating PE and sports activities in Romania states that "physical education and
sports are state-supported activities of national interest" (Portal Legislativ, 2000).
The use of modern programs of physical education and health work with students involves the
modernization of the educational process in Romanian educational institutions in all forms of
physical education based on the use of innovative pedagogical technologies. Experts focus on the
fact that a radical restructuring of the educational process of physical education in educational
institutions is needed. It is important to improve the educational content in the PE discipline,
especially its main structural components (theoretical, practical, and pedagogical control). It is
also essential to implement innovative approaches in the structure of PE lessons. These
approaches involve taking into account the psychophysiological patterns of students'
development, selecting the appropriate optimal level of students' physical activity, and satisfying
the needs of students in the appropriate types of physical exercises.
Modern innovative approaches to the acquisition of theoretical knowledge in the discipline of
physical education, which are interconnected with the formation of the basic foundations of a
healthy lifestyle of students, the acquisition of knowledge by students about the benefits of
physical exercise, do not always take into account the peculiarities of development and interests
of students. This problem necessitates the search for innovative approaches to the process of
forming theoretical knowledge in students, which is noted as a compulsory component of physical
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Oleksandra Tsybanyuk, Nataliia Hnes, Inna Strazhnikova, Serhii Dariichuk
The innovative structure of physical education lessons for students in romanian educational
institutions (late XIX - early XXI Century). - Eduweb, 2023, abril-junio, v.17, n.2. /210-224
education, which to some extent influences the involvement of students in sports. Theoretical
training in the discipline of physical education is obliged to play the role of the most basic factor
that accentuates the full life of the individual, promotes the disclosure of differentiated inclinations
and abilities, and the acquisition of skills in any type of professional activity (Pangelov et al.,
2022).
The current curricula of Romanian educational institutions in physical education and sport are
designed for primary, secondary and high school, which currently represent a somewhat
differentiated structure from one educational cycle to another. The physical education curriculum
as a normative document of the educational process establishes and allows each teacher to form
specific skills in students, using as means the content categories that he or she considers effective,
corresponding to the characteristics of the class and specific conditions of activity. The PE
curriculum is concentric in nature in the sense of repeating content to reinforce skills and to
promote the phenomenon of transfer of new skills and the development of physical and mental
abilities. As a result, the content taught during one school year will be repeated in the next school
year. The current form of the physical education curriculum is a transitional stage to the future
approach, which will be based on the development of a new unified system of physical education
(Badicu, 2015).
Thus, it can be assumed that physical activity plays a truly important and even dominant role in
the healthy growth and development of students. Moreover, it can be seen as a developmental
factor not only in the physical but also in the psychological sense of the word, as a factor that
integrates practical skills into everyday life. Thus, the previous curriculum (Ministry of Education
and Research, 2003; 2004; 2005) was replaced by new curriculum documents (Ministry of
National Education, Research and Innovation, 2009; Ministry of National Education, 2013), which
are applied since the 2015-2016 academic year (Ministry of National Education, 2017).
Thus, the study of the innovative structure of physical education lessons for students in Romanian
educational institutions (late XIX - early XXI centuries) is insignificantly reflected in scientific
publications in the form of theoretical research and practical research. However, the issue of
promoting the implementation and introduction of an innovative structure of physical education
lessons for students in Romanian educational institutions remains relevant and open for further
research.
3. Methodology
The realization of the purpose of this study involves the use of such research methods as:
systematic and logical analysis to determine the structure of physical education lessons in
Romania;
the method of information synthesis to determine the dynamics of the evolution of the
structure of physical education lessons in Romanian educational institutions (the 90s of XX -
XXI century);
generalization of the latest scientific publications related to the analysis of methods, tools,
and techniques used to study the innovative structure of physical education lessons for
students in Romanian educational institutions;
Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 17, N° 2. Abril-junio 2023
Eduweb, 2023, abril-junio, v.17, n.2. ISSN: 1856-7576
a comparison method for differentiating parts of the physical education lesson of Romanian
schoolchildren.
To determine certain features of the innovative structure of physical education lessons of student
youth in educational institutions of Romania (late XIX - early XXI century), the study was
conducted using descriptive statistics, the data of which were provided as a result of a survey
using MS Forms Pro. The survey was conducted to determine the perceptions of students about
the innovative structure of physical education lessons for students in Romanian educational
institutions. An online survey was conducted from October 24, 2022, to January 20, 2023, which
collected information from 2500 students of the following educational institutions: Colegiul
Naţional De Informatică "Tudor Vianu", Colegiul National "Vasile Alecsandri", Colegiul Național
"Zinca Golescu" Pitești, Colegiul Național 'Dr. Ioan Meșotă' Brașov, Colegiul Naţional "Gheorghe
Lazăr". These participants answered questions about their learning experience, motivation,
expectations, and overall satisfaction with the innovative structure of physical education lessons.
This online survey addressed the following research questions: 1. What exercises in the innovative
structure of physical education lessons in Romanian educational institutions have a positive impact
on the development of physical education in students? 2. What game exercises are most often
used by teachers in the innovative structure of physical education lessons in Romanian
educational institutions? 3. What innovative technologies are used in the innovative structure of
physical education lessons for pupils' youth in Romanian educational institutions?
4. Results
It should be noted that the structure of physical education lessons in the country is constantly
evolving - the number of parts, their purpose, objectives, duration, etc. are changing (Figure. 1).
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The innovative structure of physical education lessons for students in romanian educational
institutions (late XIX - early XXI Century). - Eduweb, 2023, abril-junio, v.17, n.2. /210-224
Figure 1.
Structure of PE lessons in Romania
Source: Compiled by the authors based on official data of Ardelean (2000), Serghi (2016), Ministry
of Education (1989), Portal Legislativ (2000), and Didactic Premium (2022)
It has been found that the three-part structure is also used in modern conditions - during training
or in physiotherapy sessions: "where the content and purpose of the lessons are more limited".
A comparative characterization of the purpose of each of the four parts (structura pe 4 părţi) of
a PE lesson is presented in Table 1.
Table 1.
Comparative characteristic of parts of PE lesson of Romanian schoolchildren
Allocation
options
The purpose of the introductory part
The purpose of the
fundamental part
The purpose of the
final part
Introductory
Preparatory
Three-part
structure
-
Gradual involvement in
physical activity
Achievement of the
immediate topic of the
lesson
reduction of
neuromuscular
excitability, restoration
of basic functions
according to the initial
parameters, analysis,
and recommendations
for optimization
Four-part
structure
Announcing tasks,
organizing the
group, and
improving the
emotional state of
students
Gradual preparation of
the body for exercise
Source: Compiled by the authors.
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Reforming the system of PE for Romanian students, initiated by Law No. 69/2000, has made
adjustments, including to the structure of the main form - the lesson. The basis of the changes
was the introduction of an innovative structure by "links" or "moments" (structura pe verigi), a
characteristic feature of which was the division of content into small units in a constant,
coordinated sequence. Let's consider the links (L) of the modern structure, which are
schematically represented in Figure 2, which include:
L 1. Organizational measures;
L 2. Preparing the body for exercise (general "warming up" of the body);
L 3. Exercises of selective influence on the musculoskeletal system: "optimization of physical
development";
L 4. Exercises to develop (or test) motor skills (speed, dexterity);
L 5. Realization of the lesson topic: "teaching, strengthening, improving and testing motor skills".
L 6. Is dedicated to the development and monitoring of motor skills such as strength and/or
flexibility and endurance.
The next two (L7 and L8) fulfill the tasks of the final part and provide for the body's recovery
after exercise (L7) and an informative component: analysis, recommendations,
acknowledgments, announcements, etc. (L8).
The field
"Three-part structure"
The field
"Four-part structure"
The field
"Structure by
"links"
The field
"Preparatory part"
The field
"Introductory part"
The field
"Preparatory part"
Oval L1
Oval L2
----------------------------------
Oval L3
The field
"Fundamental part"
----------------------------------
The field
"Final part"
The field
"Fundamental part"
The field
"Final part"
----------------------------------
Oval L4
----------------------------------
Oval L5
Oval L6
Oval L7
----------------------------------
Oval L8
Figure 2
. Evolution of the structure of PE lessons in Romanian educational institutions (the 90s
of the XX - XXI century)
To analyze the innovative structure of physical education lessons for students in Romanian
educational institutions, a survey of students of the following educational institutions was
conducted: Colegiul Naţional De Informatică "Tudor Vianu", Colegiul National "Vasile Alecsandri",
Colegiul Naţional "Zinca Golescu" Pitești, Colegiul Naţional 'Dr. Ioan Meșotă' Brașov, Colegiul
Naţional "Gheorghe Lazăr". They answered the questions: "Which exercises in the innovative
structure of physical education lessons in Romanian educational institutions have a positive impact
on the development of physical culture in students?" and the students noted that coordination
exercises (98.3%), game and competitive exercises (95.5%), breathing exercises (94.1%),
rhythmic exercises (93.8%), exercises in various and imitation walking (92.4%), etc. have a
positive impact on the development of physical culture in students (Figure 3).