Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 18, N° 1. Enero-marzo 2024
245
Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo, v.18, n.1. ISSN: 1856-7576
DOI: https://doi.org/10.46502/issn.1856-7576/2024.18.01.18
Cómo citar:
Bidenko, L., Diachuk, L., Ghahrodi, H.L., Krymets, O., & Cherniavska, S. (2024). Project-oriented teaching during learning ukrainian
as a foreign languages: development of students' communication skills. Revista Eduweb, 18(1), 245-258.
https://doi.org/10.46502/issn.1856-7576/2024.18.01.18
Project-oriented teaching during learning ukrainian as a
foreign languages: development of students'
communication skills
Enseñanza orientada a proyectos durante el aprendizaje del Ucraniano como
lengua extranjera: Desarrollo de las habilidades comunicativas de los
estudiantes
Larysa Bidenko
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9128-5678
Sumy State University, Ukraine.
Liudmyla Diachuk
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0076-5236
University of Mons, Belgium.
Halyna Lotfi Ghahrodi
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6713-9056
Ivan Ziaziun Institute of Pedagogical Education and Adult Education of the NAES of Ukraine, Ukraine.
Oksana Krymets
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8401-3540
National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Ukraine.
Svitlana Cherniavska
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9438-6965
National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Ukraine.
Recibido: 04/01/24
Aceptado: 18/03/24
Abstract
Perception of professional information is possible due to orientation to different sources that are related to
foreign language learning. The study aims to determine the peculiarities of the development of
communication skills of students through the use of project-oriented teaching of Ukrainian as a foreign
language. Ensuring the development of the set purpose was possible due to the use of the methods of
analysis, observation and estimated efficiency coefficient, effect level coefficient, Student’s coefficient.
Project-oriented approaches to education, oriented to the development of communication skills were
developed during the study. They were based on dubbing the disciplines in two languages, formation of
theoretical language knowledge, and development of dialogue communication and writing skills. The most
positive role of the selected project-oriented teaching was found using SWOT analysis. The practical
significance of the work provides for the possibility of the use of developed approaches to studying
Ukrainian as a foreign language for the possibility of obtaining communication skills. The perspective of the
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study will be oriented towards a comparison of the influence of project-oriented studying of students of
different ages with consideration of their possibilities at the beginning.
Keywords: Bilingualism, language knowledge, communication skills, dialogue communication, interactive
technologies, active student interaction.
Resumen
La percepción de la información profesional es posible gracias a la orientación a diferentes fuentes
relacionadas con el aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras. El estudio tiene como objetivo determinar las
peculiaridades del desarrollo de las habilidades comunicativas de los estudiantes mediante el uso de la
enseñanza orientada a proyectos de ucraniano como lengua extranjera. Asegurar el desarrollo del propósito
establecido fue posible gracias al uso de los todos de análisis, observación y coeficiente de eficiencia
estimado, coeficiente de nivel de efecto, coeficiente de Student. Durante el estudio se desarrollaron
enfoques educativos orientados a proyectos, orientados al desarrollo de habilidades comunicativas. Se
basaban en el doblaje de las disciplinas en dos idiomas, la formación de conocimientos lingüísticos teóricos
y el desarrollo de las habilidades de comunicación y escritura en el diálogo. El papel s positivo de la
enseñanza orientada a proyectos seleccionada se constató mediante el análisis FODA. La importancia
práctica del trabajo prevé la posibilidad del uso de los enfoques desarrollados para el estudio del ucraniano
como lengua extranjera para la posibilidad de obtener las habilidades comunicativas. La perspectiva del
estudio se orientará hacia la comparación de la influencia del estudio orientado a proyectos de estudiantes
de diferentes edades teniendo en cuenta sus posibilidades al principio.
Palabras clave: Bilingüismo, conocimientos lingüísticos, destrezas comunicativas, comunicación
dialogada, tecnologías interactivas, interacción activa de los alumnos.
1. Introduction
Development of the language and cultural variety affects societal change, which is related to additional
mobility and communication. Such approaches contribute to the formation of new possibilities for students,
which is reflected in self-organisation and self-education. Therefore, current changes should be considered
in students' training, which stipulates the relevance of the article.
Qualitative mastering of the studying materials can be achieved through understanding and ensuring active
communication with a lecturer and other students (Akhmetova et al., 2023). This approach may be
especially expressed due to training foreign citizens. Therefore, lecturers should ensure the development
of communication skills, which provides for free communication in foreign languages, during education.
Traditional education does not ensure a deeper approach to language studying for foreigners
(Mukhtarkhanova et al., 2023). Different project approaches, educational games, and discussions, which
contribute to the development of oral and written communication, are more frequently used to ensure
qualitative education (Khalilia et al., 2023). It is important to ensure both theoretical and practical
development of language knowledge. Obtaining a high level of specific knowledge is possible by ensuring
the qualitative inclusion of foreign languages into practical training. In the teaching-learning process,
communication skills ensure effective communication, which allows achieving professional competence
formation. Communication skills enable ensuring perception of the actual information, and coordination of
the received knowledge, which affects achieving certain results (Alhabdan, 2021; Handzilevska et al., 2023).
Knowledge of a relevant theme, which influences professional skills formation, may be expanded using
communication skills. The efficiency of such an approach depends on the selected educational approach
and the teacher’s competence.
Larysa Bidenko, Liudmyla Diachuk, Halyna Lotfi Ghahrodi, Oksana Krymets, Svitlana Cherniavska
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It is possible to ensure the development of communication skills during foreign language study through the
understanding of studying materials, ensuring grammar accuracy (Slipetska et al., 2023). Such an approach
allows excluding even minor mistakes. Formation of correct pronunciation, which contributes to accurate
perception of the information heard, and motivation for the perception of new information are also
important. The common projects of communication skills development and linear and integrative. The linear
project provides for the preliminary development of communication competence before obtaining
professional knowledge (Tedeneke, 2022). The integrative project foresees the development of
communication skills directly during education, which forms communication competence (Alrashidi, 2022).
Foreign language mastering should be based on the development of communication skills, which can be
realised through authentic materials use. Hence, it is necessary to ensure an individual approach to
education, which contributes to the use of the mother language of students and the perception of studying
materials due to foreign language use. The interaction of two languages during education (bilingualism)
enables ensuring qualitative perception of studying materials (Saito et al., 2019; Al-Hawamleh et al., 2022).
The use of language models enables ensuring not only foreign language improvement but also studying
materials mastering. Project-oriented studying allows ensuring a new form of information presentation to
achieve higher professional results (Zavaruieva et al., 2022).
The theoretical grounds of the presented theme allowed us to determine that many studies are oriented
on the necessity of forming communication competence. It is worth noting that studies consider not only
the development of linguistic competence but the system of education in general. The study aims to ensure
the development of communication skills of students through the use of project-oriented teaching of
Ukrainian as a foreign language.
Study tasks, set to achieve the presented aim, were:
development of the approaches to project-oriented education of students with the purpose of studying
Ukrainian language as a foreign language for the development of communication skills;
determination of the level of obtained communication skills of students, using calculation of the
efficiency coefficient;
determination of the study elements, which according to the students were the most influential on the
development of communication skills;
use of SWOT analysis to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the developed project-
oriented education.
2. Literature review
Globalisation processes influence the necessity of the development of communication skills, which provides
for communication not only in native but also foreign languages. To develop communication skills, it is
above all necessary to ensure the elimination of the existing problems in education and form strict practical
strategies for the development of intercultural communication among students (Zhylin et al, 2023).
Ensuring the development of communication skills in European countries is possible through the formation
of interest in the teaching-learning process in students. Professional training should foresee education
perception, orientation to students, development of competencies of disciplines integration, and ensuring
teamwork. It is necessary to focus on teaching-learning process planning, excluding fear in foreign
language learning (for example, public speeches) (Ciuciulkiene et al., 2023). Ensuring an intercultural
approach to language learning is possible due to information literacy ensuring. Joint educational space
enables ensuring the development of the learning activity and communication competence. Such an
approach enables ensuring information exchange, which affects practical skills mastering in the process of
studying. Ensuring feedback in the teaching-learning process provides for achieving higher results.
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Learning Thai as a foreign language should be based on additional study of Thai culture. Herewith, ensuring
development of the communication competence is possible due to digital education, excluding focusing on
only traditional textbooks. Intercultural communication can take place due to intercultural expansion, which
is related to the use of international programs. It is also necessary to orient to continuous education and
ensure a balanced approach (Pimpuang et al., 2023). Foreign language studying can be related to the use
of a creative approach, which ensures the development of foreign language communication skills. During
the process of studying, it is necessary to ensure the specific algorithm of evaluation of the level of
knowledge efficiency of students and develop creativity. The creative approach can be realised by ensuring
the performance of creative tasks. First, it is necessary to ensure the study of the theoretical framework,
which enables concentration on important social issues, which contribute to communication development
(Byram et al., 2023). An effective approach is foreign language studying is the use of mobile and sensor
technologies, as it contributes to constant communication between students. The highest results can be
achieved by ensuring personal and context support. Digital technologies enable ensuring situated learning,
which affects ensuring qualitative communication practice. The process also manifests in the facilitated
perception of theoretical material and students' interaction (Hsu & Liu, 2023a).
Ensuring profession-oriented foreign language studying is possible due to ensuring focus on practical
activity. Within teaching, it is necessary to ensure a combination of lexical-semantic groups and professional
terminology, which facilitates studying materials and memorising. While teaching, it is important to ensure
the consistency of material presentation, |which contributes to professional information mastering. It is
possible to ensure a more oriented approach to education with the use of digital technologies (Antufieva
et al., 2023). Information and communication technologies shall be used for the development of
communication skills of students. They contribute to the optimization of the teaching-learning process and
ensure detailed analysis of information and its presentation (El Khaymy, 2023).
The literature review showed that the formation of communication skills during foreign language studying
is a common issue for the research. Still, gaps in the research are related to the absence of the use of
various approaches within one studying process for determination of their efficiency. The possibility of
learning Ukrainian as a foreign language is also an understudied issue, as the main focus is given to the
English language.
3. Methods
Study procedure
The first stage of the study was directed at the development of the project-oriented approach to learning
the Ukrainian language as a foreign language. Ensuring the search for non-standard learning mechanisms,
which are directed at professional skills development and communication development was provided. The
second stage of the study was oriented to the determination of the level of communication skills obtained
by students. It foresaw the determination of advanced, intermediate, pre-intermediate and elementary
knowledge levels. The second stage of the study was directed at the determination of project-oriented
approaches, which had the largest effect on the development of communication among students. The third,
final, stage of the study aimed at determining the advantages and disadvantages of project-oriented
teaching which was presented within the study. The results were presented with the use of SWOT analysis.
Sampling formation
Sampling formation provided for the engagement of 169 second-year students in higher educational
institutions in Ukraine. Students were representatives of Sumy State University and National Technical
University ‘Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute’. Students did not have a speciality and studied different majors
(economic, philological, pedagogical). The main condition of students engaging was being a foreigner, for
Project-oriented teaching during learning ukrainian as a foreign languages:
development of students' communication skills. - Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo,
v.18, n.1. /245-258
Larysa Bidenko, Liudmyla Diachuk, Halyna Lotfi Ghahrodi, Oksana Krymets, Svitlana Cherniavska
Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 18, N° 1. Enero-marzo 2024
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whom Ukrainian was a foreign language. Respondents were representatives of Kazakhstan, Poland,
Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, who studied in Ukraine. In the beginning stage, the authors planned to
engage students in the 4th-5th year of studying. However, these students have already formed their
knowledge of a foreign language, which could be incorrectly reflected in the study results.
Methods
For the development of project-oriented studying approaches, the authors first studied available non-
standard learning mechanisms. The authors excluded the development of a specific educational program
for students, as they studied in different departments and chairs. The possibility of the use of non-standard
approaches to learning the Ukrainian language as a foreign language was emphasised. The process of
studying foresaw ensuring the use of digital technologies, which were selected among 50 different
applications. The selection process included familiarising with the theoretical peculiarities of applications,
which included their compatibility with the developed project-oriented approach. During the study, studying
was not limited to learning Ukrainian as a foreign language exclusively. The possibility of its use while
studying other disciplines was also considered.
The use of observation methods by the lecturers was foreseen to determine the level of communication
skills obtained by students. This enabled the comparison of the beginning level of the communication skills
and the level achieved after 6 months of studying. The data received from lecturers were used to calculate
the efficiency coefficient, developed by the authors of the study:

,
(1)
conditional grade for the possibility of free discussion of the class theme by students;
conditional grade for solving specific situations during the teaching-learning process;
grade for studying material perception and the possibility of varying it.
Determination of the most influential studying approaches, which affected the development of
communication skills was conducted by students. The students were offered to use Thurstone-type scales,
which provided evaluation with grades from 1 to 5 to project-oriented approaches, which facilitate
communication formation. The students had to describe why a certain parameter was more influential than
others. Such an approach contributed to ensuring the validity of the results, which excluded receiving
incorrect data. Students' data were collected using electronic mail, which enabled tracing information
receipt from all students. The received results were used for the calculation of the efficiency level
coefficient, developed by the authors of the study:

, (2)
level of certain studying approach perception by the students
difficulty of material learning with the use of the selected studying approach
the possibility of a separate studying approach, use not only for learning the Ukrainian language as a
foreign language, but also for studying other disciplines.
SWOT analysis was used to determine the advantages and disadvantages of project-oriented studying.
SWOT analysis is a subjective method, which excludes any calculations, but is based on actual statements,
which contribute to it. This method includes Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. The study
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of certain aspects has both advantages and disadvantages. The use of SWOT analysis enables the
determination of the advantages of one parameter over the others.
Data analysis
Conducted calculations were also confirmed by relevant statistical calculations of the Student’s coefficient
(Sahrim et al., 2023). The use of the Student’s coefficient enabled ensuring substantiated confirmation of
the received data. Additional calculations were conducted to determine the level of communication skills
obtained by students and the most influential studying approaches. The calculation of the Student's
coefficient provides for parameters ratio, if the value does not exceed table one (is equal to 1,895).


(3)
M1, M2 average divergence of parameters;
m1, m2 average deviation of parameters for comparison.
Ethical criteria
Ethical norms included compliance with the accuracy of the information provided, which excluded
presenting information, unrelated to the study. The authors confirm the credibility of the received data,
which was confirmed with the relevant calculations (National Research Ethics Committees, 2019).
4. Results and discussion
The authors have developed a project-oriented approach for the development of communication skills as a
result of learning Ukrainian as a foreign language. Project-oriented approach lies in the use of a non-
standard approach to studying, considering the combination of native and Ukrainian language as a foreign
one (Figure 1).
Project-oriented teaching during learning ukrainian as a foreign languages:
development of students' communication skills. - Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo,
v.18, n.1. /245-258
Larysa Bidenko, Liudmyla Diachuk, Halyna Lotfi Ghahrodi, Oksana Krymets, Svitlana Cherniavska
Revista de Tecnología de Información y Comunicación en Educación • Volumen 18, N° 1. Enero-marzo 2024
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Fig. 1.
Project-oriented approach for learning Ukrainian language as a foreign language.
During the studying process, ensuring the creation of the linguistic environment which involves dubbing of
all disciplines in two languages was provided. Bilingualism was used to ensure an understanding of
educational information, which enabled ensuring deeper understanding of the specific theme. For this, the
interactive technologies use, which facilitates the meaningful perception of information, was foreseen. The
use of the online platform Prezi enabled ensuring active student engagement in studying, and teamwork,
which affects development of the communication competence. Presentation displaying in two languages
and their commenting in Ukrainian was oriented on ensuring better information perception, which
contributes to its learning. The use of the research method, which lay in additional information search,
which contributes to the profound study of the theme was provided in the teaching-learning process. Paying
detailed attention to the issue influences the absence of the necessity of intentional terminology
memorising, which excludes conscious theme perception.
Formation of theoretical language knowledge involves studying rules, which manifests in understanding
peculiarities of the formation of words, morphological and word-composing materials. The studying process
also involved ensuring syntactic material studying. It was also directed at studying approaches to
composing simple and complex sentences. Formation of theoretical language knowledge involved the
development of interaction between students, which foresaw discussing the studied material. The use of
the brainstorming method contributed to discussing studying materials, which facilitated students'
socialisation and meaningful perception of the studying materials. The online platform ‘Open for Ukrainian’
was used to enhance the quality of theoretical language knowledge. The platform's use enabled ensuring
the use of audio recordings, presentations, and quizzes for better visual information perception.
The development of dialogue communication involved the interaction of students with each other and
influenced the solution of the programmed situation. Dialogue communication involved video and film
review, which contributed to the development of documentation and dialogue thinking. The approach
Educational video and film
review
active student engagement
Focus on independent
research activity
use of the digital application
Duolingo
Use of brainstorming
method
use of the online-platform
«Open for Ukrainian»
Use of the online platform
Prezi
active student engagement
Ensuring disciplines
dubbing in two
languages
Formation of
theoretical
language
knowledge
Development of
dialogue
communication
Development of
writing skills
252
affected ensuring logical thinking in the process of interaction with other students and lecturers, which
facilitated learning the Ukrainian language. This enabled an understanding of professional terminology and
communication on a separate social theme. While studying students could receive feedback which affected
motivation in learning a foreign language. Dialogue communication was focused on the possibility of
practical application of the received knowledge. Dialogue communication was directed at ensuring grammar
accuracy in a foreign language environment, which contributes to understanding language rules. Dialogue
communication ensures the possibility of own opinion expression, using standard specific language means.
The other important element was the development of the writing skills of students, which involved the
development of creative skills. The use of independent research activity for studying a particular theme
was involved during studying. In this stage of studying their realisation was oriented on writing
compositions on the studied theme. Herewith, it is worth considering consistency and logic of writing,
considering following language rules. Development of writing skills was oriented on ensuring skills of
mastering different information for the possibility of ensuring free variation in the Ukrainian language by
students. This allowed students to correctly understand the meaning of every word and use it depending
on the context. Development of writing skills is of significant importance for practical knowledge formation,
which is reflected in communication skills, based on the correct word usage. Digital application Duolingo,
which provided learning Ukrainian language as a foreign language was also used in the studying process.
The studying process has a game form, which motivates students to new achievements.
Final control of the students enabled determining the level of communication skills achieved by students.
The results were received after five months of studying (Figure 2).
Fig. 2.
The level of communication skills of students, which were formed in the studying process, :
advanced - pre-intermediate: 1,954; advanced - intermediate: 2,037; pre-intermediate - intermediate:
1,821.
The students were found to achieve an advanced level of communication skills, which was observed in free
communication in the studying process and interpersonal communication. This also affected thinking
flexibility, ability to work in a team, and confidence in education. An advanced communication level was
achieved by understanding professional information and the ability to vary it. Students’ initiatives, which
influenced professional knowledge expansion, contributed to this. This also manifested in the possibility of
communication skills application during public speeches, expressing opinions and keeping the conversation.
Students also developed listening skills, which allowed them to correctly perceive studying materials.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Advanced level
Intermediate level
Pre-intermediate level
5,5 (82%)
4,3 (15%)
3,7 (3%)
Project-oriented teaching during learning ukrainian as a foreign languages:
development of students' communication skills. - Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo,
v.18, n.1. /245-258
Larysa Bidenko, Liudmyla Diachuk, Halyna Lotfi Ghahrodi, Oksana Krymets, Svitlana Cherniavska
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Pre-intermediate level of communication skills of students was achieved due to the possibility of solving the
task set by a lecturer, with his support in certain stages. At the same time, students took initiative while
studying.
An intermediate level of communication was achieved among students, who could not freely express their
thoughts, which influenced their inner self-disclosure. Such students also did not actively participate in
discussions.
The element of project-oriented teaching which influenced the development of communication skills the
most was also studied during the study (Table 1).
Table 1.
Determination of the most influential element of project-oriented teaching on the development of
communication skills
Element of project-oriented
studying
Influence
level
Student’s coefficient
Interactive technologies use
3,6
Interactive technologies use - Active student engagement:
0,938
Interactive technologies use - brainstorming: 0,817
Interactive technologies use - independent research activity:
0,842
Interactive technologies use - video and film review: 0,759
Active student engagement
3,7
Active student engagement - brainstorming: 0,861
Active student engagement independent research activity:
0,863
Active student engagement video and film review: 0,979
Brainstorming
3,3
Brainstorming independent research activity: 0,731
Brainstorming video and film review: 0,894
Independent research activity
3,3
Independent research activity video and film review: 0,927
Video and film review
3,4
During the study, we found that all the elements of project-oriented studying influenced the development
of communication skills. A partial advantage was observed in the mechanism of active student engagement,
as the presented mechanism contributed to the meaningful approach to information learning and
understanding foreign languages.
Interactive technology use also has advantages, as it contributes to the elimination of gaps in knowledge
due to constant knowledge evaluation. Interactive technologies ensure visual information perception, using
bilingualism methods. Interactive technologies are a qualitative studying element, which contributes to
active engagement in the studying process, work on the studying project, teamwork, etc.
Educational video and film review contributed to the development of communication skills, as it ensured
the use of bilingualism approaches. This enabled a meaningful approach to the perception of the Ukrainian
language as a foreign language, which expanded the possibilities of its use.
Independent research activity and brainstorming methods have approximately similar influences on
communication skills formation. This is related to the possibility of solving different tasks, which involve
active interaction of students with each other and lecturers. These approaches also reflected in the
formation of creative thinking, which enabled enhancing the professional competence of students.
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In the final stage of the study advantages and disadvantages of project-oriented teaching of the Ukrainian
language as a foreign language were found. The results were received due to the use of SWOT analysis
(Table 2).
Table 2.
Analysis of project-oriented teaching of Ukrainian language as a foreign language on the basis of SWOT
analysis
Strengths
Weaknesses
Contributes to a more detailed study of a certain theme
Ensures active interaction between the students
Contributes to the use of innovative studying approaches
The use of bilingualism while teaching students leads to
better material mastering.
Necessity of Active student engagement in the
studying process
Use of a large period of time for one theme preparation
Student's passivity in relation to new material
perception
Opportunities
Threats
A student forms skills of free communication in the
professional sphere based on the studied material.
It contributes to revealing the creative potential of
students, which affects fluency in professional material.
The absence of mechanisms of lecturers training to
ensure a qualitative studying process.
The absence of knowledge of a certain aspect of a
foreign language, that influences correct language
understanding.
Study results show that the use of project-oriented studying has a positive influence. Present weaknesses
and disadvantages can be eliminated by ensuring a substantiated approach to planning both the teaching-
learning process and a separate theme. The positive role of such an approach lies in ensuring the possibility
of expanding knowledge in a separate discipline, orienting on foreign language studying. This enabled the
perception of educational information from different resources.
An authentic educational environment can be used to ensure learning English as a foreign language. It can
be realised with the use of augmented reality technologies. These technologies contribute to ensuring
multi-modal support, which satisfies the individual needs of students. According to the developed study
program, the focus was on the development of communication skills. The studying materials should be
related to a combination of educational theories (Hsu et al., 2023b).
The use of mass open online course enabled interaction between students, which facilitates solving specific
tasks. The process of studying involved ensuring a more profound study of the theme, which involved the
use of digital technology Selenium. The depth of the theme learning influences the use of new technology,
which contributes to studying efficiency (Li et al., 2023). The use of games ensures the learning of a foreign
language, as it facilitates and influences cultural awareness. The positive role of the gaming approach is
related to expanding the vocabulary through active cooperation. The process ensures the development of
students’ motivation, which ensures critical thinking formation. The game format ensures the development
of situational exercise, which affects the possibility of new material memorising and active participation of
students (Diachenko et al., 2022). Interactive technologies in education were used in our work. The focus
was also made on dubbing disciplines in two languages, the formation of theoretical language knowledge,
and the development of dialogue communication and writing skills.
As the result of a comparison of individual pedagogical and social normative education, the advantages of
the second were found. Orientation to socialisation ensures the development of communication skills.
Communication skills ensure easy interaction with other students, which contributes to a better
understanding of the studying materials. It also enables ensuring the clarity of one's own opinion
expression, which provides thinking flexibility (Herrmann-Israel & Byram, 2023). Ensuring foreign language
learning is possible due to orientation towards information, which reflects folk nature. Their efficiency lies
in the formation of the correct communication strategies, which affects expression and diction. For example,
Project-oriented teaching during learning ukrainian as a foreign languages:
development of students' communication skills. - Eduweb, 2024, enero-marzo,
v.18, n.1. /245-258
Larysa Bidenko, Liudmyla Diachuk, Halyna Lotfi Ghahrodi, Oksana Krymets, Svitlana Cherniavska